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GENERAL MANAGEMENT
CHECK POINT 17: THE LEADING PROCESS

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1. what is the leading process?
2. the difference between managers and leaders
3. leadership function
4. leadership style
5. what influences leadership styles?
6. range of leadership styles
7. additional factors which influence leadership styles
8. fiedler's lPC scale
9. small business example
adaptation of fiedler's lPC scale
10. fiedler's model of effective leadership
11. two types of leadership behavior
12. DISC® Behavioral Model
13. Leadership Personality Profiles
14. The Situational Leadership® Model
15. The 21 Irrefutable Laws Of Leadership
16. For Serious Business Owners Only
17. The Latest Information Online
 

DO I NEED TO KNOW THIS CHECK POINT?

 

GENERAL MANAGEMENT
CHECK POINT 17: THE LEADING PROCESS

Please Select Any Topic In Check Point 17 Below And Click.

1. what is the leading process?
2. the difference between managers and leaders
3. leadership function
4. leadership style
5. what influences leadership styles?
6. range of leadership styles
7. additional factors which influence leadership styles
8. fiedler's lPC scale
9. small business example
adaptation of fiedler's lPC scale
10. fiedler's model of effective leadership
11. two types of leadership behavior
12. DISC® Behavioral Model
13. Leadership Personality Profiles
14. The Situational Leadership® Model
15. The 21 Irrefutable Laws Of Leadership
16. For Serious Business Owners Only
17. The Latest Information Online
 

DO I NEED TO KNOW THIS CHECK POINT?

 

WELCOME TO CHECK POINT 17

TUTORIAL 1 General Management TUTORIAL 2 Human
Resources Management
TUTORIAL 3 Financial Management TUTORIAL 4 Operations Management TUTORIAL 5 Marketing
And Sales Management
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2 7 12 17 22 27 32 37 42 47 52 57 62 67 72 77 82 87 92 97
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4 9 14 19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89 94 99
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
 

HOW CAN YOU BENEFIT FROM CHECK POINT 17?

 
The main purpose of this check point is to provide you and your management team with detailed information about the Leading Process and how to apply this information to maximize your company's performance.
 
In this check point you will learn:
 
• What is the leading process?
• About the difference between managers and leaders.
• About two important leadership functions.
• About two basic leadership styles.
• About factors which may influence a leadership style.
• About the range of leadership styles.
• About Fiedler's LPS Scale and model of effective leadership.
• About DISC® Behavioral Model and types of leadership behavior.
• About the Situational Leadership Model®.
• About the 21 irrefutable laws of leadership... and much more.
 

LEAN MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR CHECK POINT 17

 
You and your management team should become familiar with the basic Lean Management principles, guidelines, and tools provided in this program and apply them appropriately to the content of this check point.
 
You and your team should adhere to basic lean management guidelines on a continuous basis:
 
Treat your customers as the most important part of your business.
Provide your customers with the best possible value of products and services.
Meet your customers' requirements with a positive energy on a timely basis.
Provide your customers with consistent and reliable after-sales service.
Treat your customers, employees, suppliers, and business associates with genuine respect.
Identify your company's operational weaknesses, non-value-added activities, and waste.
•. Implement the process of continuous improvements on organization-wide basis.
Eliminate or minimize your company's non-value-added activities and waste.
Streamline your company's operational processes and maximize overall flow efficiency.
Reduce your company's operational costs in all areas of business activities.
Maximize the quality at the source of all operational processes and activities.
Ensure regular evaluation of your employees' performance and required level of knowledge.
Implement fair compensation of your employees based on their overall performance.
Motivate your partners and employees to adhere to high ethical standards of behavior.
Maximize safety for your customers, employees, suppliers, and business associates.
Provide opportunities for a continuous professional growth of partners and employees.
Pay attention to "how" positive results are achieved and constantly try to improve them.
Cultivate long-term relationships with your customers, suppliers, employees, and business associates.

1. WHAT IS THE LEADING PROCESS?

LEADERSHIP AND THE LEADING PROCESS

As a business owner or manager you must provide effective and steady leadership for your organization to succeed in a highly competitive business environment.

Leadership is essential for effective management in any successful organization. Leadership means knowing what the right thing is, being able and willing to do the right thing on a continuous basis, and being prepared to take full responsibility for its outcome.

The Leading Process can be defined as "the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of organizational goals." (38) The leading process entails guiding, conducting, directing, and motivating subordinates to accomplish specific corporate objectives.

One of the basic principles of leadership suggests that people tend to follow those whom they see as a means of satisfying their own personal goals. The more managers understand what motivates their subordinates and how this motivation works, and the more they reflect this understanding in carrying out their managerial actions, the more effective leaders they are likely to be. (39)

Some people often confuse the term Manager with the term Leader. It is important to understand that both terms are not necessarily the same as explained below.

ARE YOU A ONE-PERSON BUSINESS OWNER?
If you are a one-person-business owner, or a micro-business owner, you are the "conductor of your own one-person-orchestra". In this case you must be able to wear various "management hats" based on your specific business needs. This means that you must be able to motivate yourself in completing the following activities outlined below.
 

OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN A ONE-PERSON BUSINESS

General
Management
Activities

Financial
Management
Activities

Operations
Management
Activities

Marketing
And Sales
Management
Activities

 

Finally, it will be very beneficial for you to become familiar with the content of the entire check point, because one day you may decide to take your business to the next level and employ additional employees within your organization.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

The 5 Levels Of Leadership By John Maxwell.
The 3 Mandates Of Leadership By Tony Robbins.
Serving Those Who Serve Others By Simon Sinek.
10 Principles For Leadership Development By Myles Munroe.
Ten Leadership Theories In Five Minutes By Michael Zigarelli.

2. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MANAGERS AND LEADERS

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MANAGERS AND LEADERS?

Managers

Leaders

Managers are appointed to occupy certain positions within an organization. They have specific authority, responsibilities, and accountability and are expected to perform in accordance with their organization's requirements.

Leaders usually do not expect a formal appointment. They simply emerge from within a group and take initiative when an appropriate need or moment arises. Leaders often demonstrate the ability to influence others to perform far beyond the actions dictated by formal authority.

 

ARE LEADERS BORN OR TRAINED?

Many experts believe that real Leaders are born, not trained. Thus, leaders are those individuals who show a predisposition to be more aggressive (in a non-physical sense), more courageous, more optimistic, more decisive, and more articulate than other people.

Other experts have tried to identify and measure leadership qualities. The search for such qualities enabled experts to develop two prime aspects of Leadership Behavior - leadership function and leadership style, illustrated below. (40)

TWO PRIME ASPECTS OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR

Leadership 
Function

Leadership 
Style

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Leaders, Bosses And Managers By Michael Josephson.
Leadership Vs. Management By Henry Mintzberg And Karl Moore.
Management, Leadership - What Is The Difference? By Ed Oakley.
Management Vs Leadership? Is There A Difference By Roy Gatling.
The 10 Differences Between Managers And Leaders By Scott Williams.

3. LEADERSHIP FUNCTION

WHAT IS A LEADERSHIP FUNCTION?

Leadership Function represents a specific action that must be carried out by management in every successful organization.

Management experts have concluded that a Leader in an organization is expected to perform two types of leadership functions illustrated below.

TWO TYPES OF LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS

Problem-Solving Function

Group Maintenance Function

The problem-solving or task-related function refers to the leader's responsibility to identify and solve effectively a broad range of problems.

The group maintenance or social function relates to the leader's responsibility to communicate with other employees, to motivate them, and to develop a healthy working environment.

According to Gary Yukl, author of Leadership In Organizations, there are ten most important leadership functions within an organization, as outlined below.

 

TEN MOST IMPORTANT LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS

1.

Help interpret the meaning of events.

2.

Create alignment on objectives and strategies.

3.

Build task commitment and optimism.

4.

Build mutual trust and cooperation.

5.

Strengthen collective identity.

6.

Organize and coordinate activities.

7.

Encourage and facilitate collective learning.

8.

Obtain necessary resources and support.

9.

Develop and empower people.

10.

Promote social justice and morality.

© Adapted from Gary Yukl, "Leadership in Organizations", e-Pub 7th Edition, (Kindle Edition). All rights reserved.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Why Leaders Eat Last By Simon Sinek.
How Great Leaders Inspire Action By Simon Sinek.
How Front Line Leaders Fit In The Leadership Team By Greg Schinkel.
The Functional And Action Centered Approach To Leadership By John Potter.
If You Don't Understand People, You Don't Understand Business By Simon Sinek.

4. LEADERSHIP STYLE 

WHAT IS A LEADERSHIP STYLE?

Leadership Style involves a leader's general attitude in dealing with subordinates and other employees within an organization.

Management experts have identified two basic leadership styles which may prevail in an organization as illustrated below.

TWO BASIC LEADERSHIP STYLES

Task-Oriented 
Leadership Style

Employee-Oriented 
Leadership Style

This style is based on an autocratic approach and entails the completion of a job in a most efficient manner. This style emphasizes the leader's power, minimizes misdirection of subordinates, and increases efficiency of the organizational performance.

This style is based on human relations approach and involves motivating subordinates to perform in the most efficient manner rather than dictating their actions. This style is also based on a more democratic attitude and, if successful, yields high productivity, increased employee satisfaction, and friendly relationships within the organization.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Leadership Styles By Comm Lab India.
The 5 Leadership Styles By Conor Neill.
Steve Jobs Talks About Managing People.
Entrepreneurial Leadership By Conor Neil.
Leadership Styles - Geese, Eagles And Turkeys By Coach Murphy.

5. WHAT INFLUENCES LEADERSHIP STYLES?

WHAT MAY INFLUENCE LEADERSHIP STYLE?

Robert K. Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt were among the first experts to study various factors that influence managers in selecting a specific Leadership Style. Their article How To Choose A Leadership Pattern was published in Harvard Business Review in March 1958.

In their article, authors developed a Leadership Continuum ranging from an autocratic management style, which is described by a leader making all management decisions and announcing them to employees, to a more democratic leadership style, which allows employees to be involved in a management decision-making process.

Although they preferred the Employee-Oriented Leadership Style, both experts suggested that managers need to consider specific conditions within their organization. Moreover, managers should identify three important factors, outlined below, before selecting an appropriate leadership style.

THREE IMPORTANT FACTORS INFLUENCING LEADERSHIP STYLE

1.

Management.
Individual strengths and weaknesses of the manager: knowledge, experience, and values.

2.

Subordinates.
Strengths and weaknesses of subordinates: skills, performance, interests, and abilities.

3.

Organizational Situation.
Specific situation within the organization: phase of development, external environment, profitability, and productivity.

 

SELECTION OF LEADERSHIP STYLE

Once the manager identifies and examines all relevant factors, the selection of a suitable Leadership Style can be accomplished. Such selection, in turn, will determine the extent to which subordinates are allowed to participate in the decision-making process and to enjoy freedom within the organization as illustrated next.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Autocratic Leadership By TechnoFunc.
Servant Leadership By Emerging Possibility.
Leadership By Arun Sarin, UC Berkley Hass.
Leadership And Vision By Gerry Porras Google Tech Talk.
Leadership Means Responsibility By Dean Robert Joss, Stanford Business School.

6. RANGE OF LEADERSHIP STYLES

RANGE OF LEADERSHIP STYLES

 
Task-Oriented
Leadership
Style

1.

Manager makes a decision and "tells" subordinates to implement it.

2.

Manager makes a decision and "sells" it gently to subordinates.

3.

Manager makes a preliminary decision and "invites" subordinates to comment.

4.

Manager makes proposals and "directs" subordinates to come up with suggestions.

5.

Manager presents a problem and  “asks” subordinates to come up with solutions.

6.

Manager defines limits and "expects" subordinates to make a decision.

7.

Manager "allows" subordinates to act within a defined limit.

8.

Manager "delegates" the decision-making process to subordinates.

"Autocratic"
Management
Style

Employee-
Oriented
Leadership
Style
"Democratic"
Management
Style"
 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Autocratic Leadership Style By Org 330.
Leadership - Autocratic Style By Sharn Martin.
Leadership - Democratic Style By Sharn Martin.
From Task Oriented To Outcome Focused By Rich Schefren.
Task Oriented Vs Thoughtful Self By Ken Blanchard, London Business Forum.

7. ADDITIONAL FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE LEADERSHIP STYLES

TWO LEADERSHIP STYLES

What characteristics may influence a leadership style?

According to Robert K. Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt, there are five characteristics, which may indicate a manager's predisposition to one of the two Leadership Styles as outlined below.

 

FIVE CHARACTERISTICS WHICH MAY INFLUENCE LEADERSHIP STYLE

1.

A manager craves independence and freedom of action.

2.

A manager wants to have decision-making responsibility.

3.

A manager identifies himself or herself with the organization's goals.

4.

A manager is knowledgeable and experienced enough to deal with a range of problems efficiently.

5.

A manager has experience with other managers that leads them to expect participative management.

 

The actual predisposition to a particular Leadership Style may depend upon the degree to which the above mentioned characteristics are manifested in a particular manager.

 

TWO FACTORS WHICH MAY INFLUENCE LEADERSHIP STYLE

Strong Manifestation
Of Five Characteristics

Weak Manifestation 
Of Five Characteristics

The manager may be expected to:
  • Adopt a democratic approach.
  • Select an employee-oriented leadership style.
  • Allow greater participation of employees in the decision-making process.
  • Extend more freedom to subordinates.

The manager may be expected to:

  • Adopt an autocratic approach.
  • Select a task-oriented leadership style.
  • Allow less participation of employees in the decision-making process.
  • Extend less freedom to subordinates.

Irrespective of the selection of a particular style, the manager should always be prepared to accommodate future changes. (41)

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

The 5 Levels Of Leadership By John Maxwell.
How To Be A Great Manager By Malcolm Munro.
Good Boss, Bad Boss By Robert L. Sutton, Stanford University.
10 Principles And Marks Of A Future Leader By Myles Munroe.
Leadership Law #2: The Law Of Influence By Timothy Herr, Seacret Leadership.

8. FIEDLER'S LPC SCALE

CONTINGENCY APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP

What factors may influence a particular leadership style?

Identification of factors that influence a particular Leadership Style is important in ensuring the overall success of every organization. This motivated several experts to develop a Contingency Approach To Leadership and to identify those factors, by providing answers to two questions, presented below.

QUESTIONS RELATED TO LEADERSHIP STYLE FACTORS

1.

Which factors are most important in a particular set of conditions?

2.

Which leadership style will be most effective under those conditions?

One of the major studies in this regard was conducted by Fred E. Fiedler. This study resulted in the development of Fiedler Contingency Model.

Subsequently, Fiedler reached certain conclusions based on his initial assumptions and observations outlined below.

FIEDLER'S CONCLUSIONS REGARDING LEADERSHIP STYLES

1.

Most managers would experience difficulty in changing their existing leadership styles.

2.

Trying to change a manager's leadership style to fit specific conditions could not be accomplished effectively.

3.

The effective performance of a group depends upon a proper match between a manager's leadership style and the degree to which the situation allows for managerial control and influence.

 

FIEDLER'S LPC SCALE QUESTIONNAIRE

A special Questionnaire, developed by Fiedler, helps to identify Leadership Style by indicating "the degree to which a man described favorably or unfavorably his Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC)". 

The prime purpose of this questionnaire, illustrated below, is to enable the manager to rate the employee with whom he could work least well. The rating is done on a scale 1 to 8 for each set of variables.

Fiedler's findings related to managers with High LPC and with Low LPC are summarized below. (42)

FIEDLER'S CLASSIFICATION OF MANAGERS

Managers 
With High LPC Rating

Managers 
With Low LPC Rating

A manager with high LPC Rating who describes his least preferred co-worker in a relatively favorable manner  tends to be permissive, human relations-oriented and considerate of the feelings of his co-workers.

Most managers with high LPC have an Employee-Oriented Leadership Style and are expected to pursue warm personal relationships with co-workers. These managers believe in maintaining close ties with subordinates as part of an effective organizational performance.

A manager with low LPC Rating who describes his least preferred co-worker in an unfavorable manner tends to be managing, task-controlling, and less concerned with the human relations aspect of the job.

Most managers with low LPC display a Task-Oriented Leadership Style and are expected to focus on getting the job done. These managers pay less attention to developing relationships with co-workers. Their major priority is effective performance and high productivity within the organization.

© Fred E. Fiedler and Martin M. Chemers, "Leadership and Effective Management", Scott, Foresman & Co., 1984. Adapted with permission.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Contingency Theory By Tanner Dresch.
Contingency Theory By Richard Peters.
Contingency Theory Of Leadership By Steve Wagner.
Contingency Theory By Jennifer Lombardo, Educational Portal.
Situational Leadership Theory And Contingency Theory By Anthony Adams.

9. SMALL BUSINESS EXAMPLE
ADAPTATION OF FIEDLER'S LPC SCALE

ADAPTATION OF FIEDLER'S LPC SCALE

Instruction: 
Describe your Least-Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) using the scale (1-8) below and insert the actual number for each character description line.

Character
Description

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Character
Description

Unpleasant

               

Pleasant

Unfriendly

               

Friendly

Rejecting

               

Accepting

Frustrating

               

Helpful

Unenthusiastic

               

Enthusiastic

Tense

               

Relaxed

Distant

               

Close

Cold

               

Warm

Uncooperative

               

Cooperative

Hostile

               

Supportive

Boring

               

Interesting

Quarrelsome

               

Harmonious

Hesitant

               

Self-assured

Inefficient

               

Efficient

Gloomy

               

Cheerful

Guarded

               

Open

Instruction: Add all evaluation numbers for each character description line and enter this number below.

Low LPC Number: from 16 to 64
  (16 x 1 = 16 to 16 x 4 = 64)

High LPC Number: from 90 to 128
  (16 x 5 = 90 to 16 x 8 = 128)

© Fred E. Fiedler and Martin M. Chemers, "Leadership and Effective Management", Scott, Foresman & Co., 1984. Adapted with permission.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

 
You may find additional useful information about Fred Fiedler’s Least-Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) model and other related management topics online:
 

MindTools

Practical-Management (Provides a worksheet for calculating your LPC Score).

Management Study Guide.

10. FIEDLER'S MODEL OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

FIEDLER'S MODEL OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

What are the three elements which determine an effective leadership style?

By summarizing his findings, Fiedler identified three elements, outlined below, which prevail in the workplace and help to determine the most effective Leadership Style.

 

THREE ELEMENTS WHICH RELATE TO LEADERSHIP STYLE

   

Leader-Member
Relations

 

Task 
Structure

 

Leader's 
Position Of Power

Leader-member relations refer to the status of relations between the manager and subordinates. This element also relates to the degree of trust, confidence, and respect subordinates have in or for their leader.

 

Task structure refers to the level at which various jobs are structured and formalized within the organization. In a well-structured environment, employees generally have much better idea of what they are supposed to do.

 

Leader's position of power refers to the degree of influence that managers have over their subordinates. This element also takes into consideration whether the manager has the authority to hire, promote, demote, discipline, and discharge  
subordinates.

 

© Fred E. Fiedler and Martin M. Chemers, "Leadership and Effective Management", Scott, Foresman & Co., 1984. Adapted with permission.

 

FIEDLER'S MODEL OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

Situation

Leader-Member Relations

Task Structure

Leader's 
Position Of Power

1.

Good

Structured Strong
2.

Good

Structured Weak
3.

Good

Unstructured Strong
4.

Good

Unstructured Weak
5.

Poor

Structured Strong
6.

Poor

Structured Weak
7.

Poor

Unstructured Strong
8.

Poor

Unstructured Weak

© Fred E. Fiedler and Martin M. Chemers, "Leadership and Effective Management", Scott, Foresman & Co., 1984. Adapted with permission.

11. TWO TYPES OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR

LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR

What are the two types of leadership behavior in the workplace?

Fiedler's conclusions regarding two types of Leadership Behavior are summarized below.

 

TWO TYPES OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR

Task-Oriented Managers

Employee-Oriented Managers

Task-oriented managers (with low LPC) performed most effectively in extreme  situations where the leader either had a strong position of power or, on the contrary, a weak position of power and influence.

Employee-oriented managers (with high LPC) performed most effectively in situations where the leader had a moderate position of power and influence.

© Fred E. Fiedler and Martin M. Chemers, "Leadership and Effective Management", Scott, Foresman & Co., 1984. Adapted with permission.

Note: 

Dr. Fred E. Fiedler is a Professor Emeritus of Psychology at University of State of Washington in Seattle.

 

THE PATH-GOAL THEORY

What additional factors influence leadership process?

Several experts conducted various studies and tried to identify additional factors that influence the Leadership Process.

Robert J. House, for example, suggested that personal characteristics of subordinates and the environmental pressures and demands in the workplace also influence the effectiveness of managers and their Leadership Styles. House developed the Path Goal Theory Of Leader Effectiveness, also known as the Path Goal Theory Of Leadership, in 1971 which was subsequently revised in 1996.

According to this theory, leaders' behavior in the business environment is contingent upon the performance, motivation, and satisfaction of their employees. For this reason leaders may develop a flexible approach to leadership which allows them to adapt to various situations in the business environment. (43)

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

The Leadership Management Process By Xokmax.
Leadership Process By George Kruger, University Of Wisconsin.
Leadership Is A Process, Not A Product, By Adam Scher, Columbia SIPA.
Situational Leadership Theory And Contingency Theory By Anthony Adams.
Leadership Law #3: The Law Of Process By Timothy Herr, Seacret Leadership.

12. DISC® BEHAVIORAL MODEL

DISCŪ BEHAVIORAL MODEL

The DiSC® Behavioral Model represents an important behavioral assessment tool which is widely used to identify different patterns of behavior in the workplace. This model is based on the DiSC® Theory, developed by an American psychologist William Moulton Marston and published in Emotions Of Normal People in 1928. In his book, Marston described different types of human behavior, how normal human emotions may lead to behavioral differences among various groups of people, and how a person's behavior may change over time. Marston identified four main types of behavior as outlined below.

DISC® PROFILE PERSONALITY TYPES

D-TYPE

I-TYPE

S-TYPE

C-TYPE

Personality Type:

• Dominant
• Driver

Personality Type:

• Influencer
• Interacting
• Inspiring

Personality Type:

• Supportive
• Steady

Personality Type:

• Cautious
• Compliant
• Conscientious

D-Type individuals are outgoing and task-oriented. They like to get the job done and achieve results.

I-Type individuals are outgoing and people-oriented. They like to communicate with others and have fun.

S-Type individuals are conservative and people-oriented. They like to help others and keep harmony.

C-Type individuals are conservative and task-oriented. They like to stick to fact and rules.

 
 

DISC® BEHAVIORAL MODEL AND LEADERSHIP STYLES

 
What kind of a leader are you?
 
As a business owner, you are in a Leadership Position within your own organization and your main task is to ensure successful performance of your business. You may be a one-person business owner, or you may have a management team within your organization. For this reason, it is essential that you have good understanding about various personality types, based on typical patterns of human behavior in accordance with the DiSC Behavioral Model.
 
Each leader's Personality Type will indicate that person's potential strengths and weaknesses in the workplace and provide a good insight into that person's potential Leadership Style. There are many suitable models of personality types, such as:
 
DiSC Personality Profile.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
The Process Communication Model.
 
Each model provides a unique perspective on evaluating various personality types in the workplace. DiSC® Personality Profile provides a sound method of evaluating basic elements of an individual's personality structure and helps in understanding leadership and management behavior of people in the business environment.
 
A detailed DiSC® Behavioral Model Overview, developed by Disc Profile, is presented below.
 

DISC® BEHAVIORAL MODEL OVERVIEW

ACTIVE PERSONALITY STYLES (FASTER-PACED STYLES)

T
A
S
K

O
R
I
E
N
T
E
D

S
T
Y
L
E
S

D

I

DOMINANT/DRIVER
PERSONALITY TYPE

INFLUENCING/INTERACTING
PERSONALITY TYPE

High D Traits

Low D Traits

High I Traits

Low I Traits

• Adventuresome • Analytical • Affable • Aloof
• Aggressive • Calculated • Charming • Controlled
• Competitive • Cautious • Confident • Discriminating
• Controlling • Fact-Seeker • Emotional • Factual
• Daring • Mild • Enthusiastic • Logical
• Decisive • Modest • Friendly • Pessimistic
• Demanding • Quiet • Gregarious • Reflective
• Direct • Risk-Taker • Generous • Reserved
• Determined • Self-Critical • Impulsive • Reticent
• Domineering • Unassuming • Influential • Retiring
• Egocentric   • Interactive • Suspicious
• Forceful   • Optimistic • Withdrawn
• Innovative   • People-Oriented  
• Inquisitive   • Persuasive  
• Self-Assured   • Poised  
• Self-Starter   • Self-Promoting  
• Pro-Active   • Sensitive  
• Problem-Solver   • Sociable  
• Quick Responder   • Talkative  
• Restless   • Trusting  
• Results-Oriented      
• Risk-Taker      

C

S

COMPLIANT/CAUTIOUS
PERSONALITY TYPE

STEADY/STABLE/SUPPORTIVE
PERSONALITY TYPE

High C Traits

Low C Traits

High S Traits

Low S Traits

• Accurate • Arbitrary • Amiable • Alert
• Analytical • Defiant • Calming • Change-Oriented
• Cautious • Disorganized • Complacent • Critical
• Complex • Firm • Deliberate • Demonstrative
• Conscientious • Obstinate • Easy-Going • Disconnected
• Controlled • Opinionated • Fault-Finding • Eager
• Courteous • Persistent • Friendly • Fidgety
• Critical • Rebellious • Good Listener • Impetuous
• Diplomatic • Sarcastic • Group-Oriented • Impulsive
• Discrete • Self-Tolerant • Loyal • Mobile
• Evasive • Stubborn • Modest • Restless
• Factual • Tactless • Patient • Status Seeking
• Logical   • Possessive  
• Perfectionist   • Predictable  
• Precise   • Self-Controlled  
• Self-Critical   • Sincere  
• Sensitized   • Stable  
• Systematic   • Steady  
• Restrained   • Team Player  
• Tactful      

P
E
O
P
L
E

O
R
I
E
N
T
E
D

S
T
Y
L
E
S

PASSIVE PERSONALITY STYLES (SLOWER-PACED STYLES)

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

History Of DISC® By People Keys.
DISC® Assessment By John Fallon.
DISC® Behavioral Principles By John Schindell.
Discovering Personalities By Winning Personality.
Discover Your Personality Style By Relationships College.

13. LEADERSHIP PERSONALITY PROFILES

LEADERSHIP PERSONALITY PROFILES

What is the "color" of your personality?

The DiSC® Behavioral Model is useful in developing Leadership Personality Profiles for various types of individuals, including business owners and managers, in the workplace. Since each person has a unique set of characteristics, leadership personality profiles can be summarized, based on "high level of traits" and "low level of traits". The majority of individuals usually have a combination of traits from various behavioral types, based on their own upbringing, cultural differences, life experiences, and environmental factors. These traits have been described in detail in the Disc® Behavioral Model Overview.

The leadership personality profiles of individuals with high level of traits are described below.

LEADERSHIP PERSONALITY PROFILES WITH HIGH LEVEL OF TRAITS

High D-Type
Leader
With Dominant
Personality
(Green)

High i-Type
Leader
With Influencing
Personality
(Red)

High S-Type
Leader
With Steady
Personality
(Blue)

High C-Type
Leader
With Compliant
Personality
(Yellow)

 

 

HIGH "D-TYPE" LEADER (GREEN)

Description

High D-Type ("Green") leaders are outgoing and task-oriented individuals.

High D-Type leaders are usually adventuresome, aggressive, competitive, controlling, decisive, demanding, direct, determined, domineering, forceful, innovative, inquisitive, self-assured, self-starters, pro-active, problem-solvers, quick responders, restless, and results-oriented individuals. Typically, they demand respect and sometimes create environment where other people can feel intimidated and threatened.

High D-type leaders' greatest fear is not being taken advantage of.

Wants

Value To The Team

• Authority and wide scope of responsibilities.
• Direct answers and action.
• Effective and immediate results.
• Efficient performance.
• Freedom from control and supervision.
• New challenges.
• Opportunity for advancement.
• Prestige and recognition.
• Wide range of activities.

• Challenges the existing situation.
• Creates a problem-solving environment.
• Develops spirit of competitiveness.
• Encourages calculated risk-taking.
• Focuses on accomplishments and results.
• Inspires innovation in the workplace.
• Provides motivation for meeting objectives.
• Provides "the bottom-line" answers.
• Motivates others to be a self-starter.

Strengths

Weaknesses

• Accepting challenges.
• Achieving results.
• Being persistent.
• Being self-reliant.
• Being a self-starter.
• Being practical.
• Making quick and effective decisions.
• Motivating others to achieve results.
• Providing quick response.
• Solving problems.
• Taking charge.

• Being inattentive to detail.
• Being too demanding.
• Being too cautious.
• Being insensitive.
• Being impatient with routine and people.
• Being inflexible and unyielding.
• Discriminating others.
• Overlooking risks and pitfalls.
• Overstepping authority.
• Resenting restrictions.
• Taking on too much responsibility.

 

HIGH "i-TYPE" LEADER (RED)

Description

High i-Type ("Red") leaders are outgoing and people-oriented individuals.

High i-Type leaders are usually affable, charming, confident, emotional, enthusiastic, friendly, gregarious, generous, impulsive, influential, interactive, optimistic, persuasive, poised, self-promoting, sensitive, sociable, talkative and trusting individuals. Typically, they are good communicators and clearly express their ideas and feelings. They often create environment where other people feel comfortable and accepted.

High i-type leaders' greatest fear is rejection.

Wants

Value To The Team

• Approval and friendliness.
• Casual warm relationships.
• Favorable working conditions.
• Freedom from control and detail
• Identification with others.
• Noteworthy rewards.
• People to communicate with.
• Popularity and social recognition.
• Public recognition.
• Social activities outside of the job.

• Creates an interactive atmosphere.
• Creates friendly working environment.
• Demonstrates empathy.
• Develops creative solutions.
• Offers good listening skills.
• Provides strong encouragement.
• Provides motivation to achieve results.
• Provides strong inspiration.
• Provides strong ability to resolve conflicts.
• Instills confidence in others.

Strengths

Weaknesses

• Being personable.
• Being articulate.
• Being optimistic.
• Creating an entertaining climate.
• Demonstrating optimism.
• Developing enthusiasm.
• Making a good impression.
• Willing to help others.

• Acting impulsively.
• Being suspicious of others.
• Jumping to conclusions.
• Lacking of follow-through.
• Misjudging capabilities.
• Over-committing to various activities.
• Over-estimating anticipated results.
• Talking too much.

 

HIGH "S-TYPE" LEADER (BLUE)

Description

High S-Type ("Blue") leaders are conservative and people-oriented individuals.

High S-Type leaders are usually amiable, calming, complacent, deliberate, easy-going, fault-finding, friendly, good listeners, group-oriented, loyal modest, patient, possessive, predictable, self-controlled, sincere, stable, and steady. Typically, they are good team players and even in adversity they have the tendency to be extremely loyal to team members. They often create harmony in the workplace and provide people with high level of security and friendship in relationships.

High S-type leaders' greatest fear is loss of security.

Wants

Value To The Team

• Genuine appreciation.
• Identification with others.
• Limited scope of activities.
• More time to adjust to change.
• Opportunity to specialize.
• Recognition for service.
• Preservation of the status quo.
• Security in the current situation.
• Simple and repeated procedures.
• Sincere relationships with others.

• Creates effective working groups.
• Demonstrates loyalty.
• Demonstrates predictability.
• Demonstrates sensitivity.
• Demonstrates strong team player abilities.
• Offers compliance toward authority.
• Offers empathy and patience.
• Provides good listening skills.
• Provides reliability and dependability.
• Resolves inter-personal conflicts.

Strengths

Weaknesses

• Being supportive.
• Being agreeable and easy-going.
• Being loyal.
• Being patient.
• Creating harmony in the workplace.
• Demonstrating self-control.
• Providing consistency.
• Being a good listener.
• Performing established work patterns.

• Being indecisive.
• Being overly lenient.
• Being sensitive to criticism.
• Having difficulty in meeting deadlines.
• Having difficulty in establishing priorities.
• Holding a grudge.
• Lacking initiative.
• Procrastinating.
• Resisting change.

 

HIGH "C-TYPE" LEADER (YELLOW)

Description

High C-Type ('Yellow") leaders are conservative and task-oriented individuals.

High C-Type leaders are usually accurate, analytical, cautious, complex, conscientious, controlled, courteous, critical, diplomatic, discrete, evasive, factual, logical, perfectionists, precise, self-critical, sensitized, systematic, restrained, and tactful. Typically, they like to stick to facts, comply with rules, keep high level of quality control, and pay close attention to details and procedures. They often create an environment with high level of commitment to excellence and conscientiousness.

High C-type leaders' greatest fear is criticism.

Wants

Value To The Team

• Accurate information.
• Controlled environment.
• Known operating procedures.
• Limited exposure.
• Personal autonomy.
• Personal attention.
• References and verification.
• Reassurance.
• Selective involvement.
• Sound systems and methods.

• Creates a fact-finding environment.
• Ensures compliance with rules.
• Ensures high level of quality control.
• Provides accurate results.
• Provides a systematic approach
• Offers diplomatic conflict resolution.
• Pays close attention to details.
• Provides strong level of control.
• Offers logical solutions.
• Provides thoroughness in various activities.

Strengths

Weaknesses

• Being systematic and thorough.
• Being diplomatic with people.
• Being analytical in solving problems.
• Being factual.
• Being logical.
• Being conscientiousness.
• Demonstrating discipline.
• Demonstrating accuracy.
• Having a thorough approach.

• Avoiding controversy and conflicts.
• Being indecisive.
• Being rigid in solving problems.
• Getting bogged down in detail.
• Being hesitant in trying new approaches.
• Being overly sensitive to criticism.
• Being overly cautious.
• Having a pessimistic attitude.
• Suffering from low self-esteem.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Leadership: "Green" Behavioral Style By Jaimie And Jong Hersey.
Leadership: "Red" Behavioral Style By Matt And John Hersey.
Leadership: "Blue" Behavioral Style By John And John Hersey.
Leadership: "Yellow" Behavioral Style By Ellie And John Hersey.
Introduction Of The Process Communication Model (PCM) By Taibi Kahler.

14. THE SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP ® MODEL

THE SITUATIONAL LEADERSH ® MODEL

Paul Hersey and Ken H. Blanchard, author of The One Minute Manager, developed the Situational Leadership Theory in the late 1970's. According to this theory, there is no single "best" prescription for leadership behavior.

As a part of their theory, Paul Hersey and Ken H. Blanchard also developed the Situational Leadership Model, which implies that the most effective leadership style varies with the readiness of followers as illustrated below. (44)

THE SITUATIONAL LEADERSH ® MODEL CHART

© Paul Hersey & Kenneth H. Blanchard, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources, 7ed. p. 200, Center for Leadership Studies, Inc., Escondido, CA 92025. Adapted and reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. Situational Leadership ® is a Registered Trademark of the Center for Leadership Studies, Inc.
According to Hersey and Blanchard, a manager's Leadership Style may undergo the following evolution stages outlined below.

FOUR STAGES OF THE SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP ® MODEL

Stage 1: "Telling" Leadership Style.

Low readiness of followers (R1) forces a manager to adopt a "telling" leadership style (S1). At this stage followers are either unwilling or unable to take responsibility for a particular task and need to be instructed, directed and closely supervised by the manager.

Stage 2: "Selling" Leadership Style.

Slightly moderated readiness of followers (R2) permits the manager to adopt a "selling" leadership style (S2). At this stage followers are willing but unable to take responsibility and need to be instructed, directed and motivated by the manager.

Stage 3: "Participating" Leadership Style.

Highly moderated readiness of followers (R3) permits the manager to adopt a "participating" leadership style (S3). At this stage followers are able but unwilling to take responsibility and need to be directed, motivated, and involved by the manager.

Stage 4: "Delegating" Leadership Style.

High readiness of followers (R4) permits the manager to adopt a "delegating" leadership style (S4). At this stage followers are able and willing to take responsibility and need to be given support and the opportunity to perform independently by the manager.

 
Like other experts on the Leadership Process, Hersey and Blanchard recommend a flexible and adaptive leadership approach. Such an approach helps to ensure effective organizational performance and high motivation of employees over a long period of time.
 
You can learn more about Situational Leadership ® Model from The Ken Blanchard Companies online.
 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

The Center For Leadership Studies.
Situational Leadership Overview By Deepak Talab.
Situational Leadership II By Ken And Scott Blanchard.
Leading At A Higher Level By Ken Blanchard, Drucker Institute.
How Situational Leadership Works By Matt Alanis, Alanis Business Academy.

15. THE 21 IRREFUTABLE LAWS OF LEADERSHIP

THE 21 IRREFUTABLE LAWS OF LEADERSHIP BY JOHN C. MAXWELL

John C. Maxwell is an internationally renowned leadership expert and author of over 60 books on leadership. Dr. Maxwell is the founder of EQUIP and The John Maxwell Company, organizations responsible for training over 5 million leaders worldwide.

John Maxwell also developed a unique Leadership Certification Course titled:

The 21 Irrefutable Laws Of Leadership.

 

THE 21 IRREFUTABLE LAWS OF LEADERSHIP BY JOHN C. MAXWELL

 
John C. Maxwell's Leadership Certification Course The 21 Irrefutable Laws Of Leadership, developed by Sky Mate, is presented online by Timothy Herr at Seacret Leadership Channel:
 
Leadership Law #1: The Law Of The Lid.
Leadership Law #2: The Law Of Influence.
Leadership Law #3: The Law Of Process.
Leadership Law #4: The Law Of Navigation.
Leadership Law #5: The Law Of EF Hutton.
Leadership Law #6: The Law Of Solid Ground.
Leadership Law #7: The Law Of Respect.
Leadership Law #8: The Law Of Intuition.
Leadership Law #9: The Law Of Magnetism.
Leadership Law #10: The Law Of Connection.
Leadership Law #11: The Law Of The Inner Circle.
Leadership Law #12: The Law Of Empowerment.
Leadership Law #13: The Law Of Reproduction.
Leadership Law #14: The Law Of Buy-In.
Leadership Law #15: The Law Of Victory.
Leadership Law #16: The Law Of The Big Mo.
Leadership Law #17: The Law Of Priorities.
Leadership Law #18: The Law Of Sacrifice.
Leadership Law #19: The Law Of Timing.
Leadership Law #20: The Law Of Explosive Growth.
Leadership Law #21: The Law Of Legacy.
 

© John C. Maxwell, Leadership Certification Course: The 21 Irrefutable Laws Of Leadership, Sky Mate and Timothy Herr, Seacrest Leadership Channel, 2012. All rights reserved.

16. FOR SERIOUS BUSINESS OWNERS ONLY

ARE YOU SERIOUS ABOUT YOUR BUSINESS TODAY?

Reprinted with permission.

17. THE LATEST INFORMATION ONLINE

 

LESSON FOR TODAY:
The Task Of The Leader Is To Get His People From
Where They Are To Where They Have Not Been!

Henry Kissinger

Go To The Next Open Check Point In This Promotion Program Online.